Acta Gymnica, 2018 (vol. 48), issue 1

Acta Gymnica 2018, 48(1):36-43 | DOI: 10.5507/ag.2018.006

Influence of waterpipe smoking on cardiac autonomic function at rest and following high-intensity anaerobic exercise

Mehdi Ahmadian1, Saeed Ghorbani1, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan2, Anthony S. Leicht3
1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran
2 Department of Sport Physiology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
3 Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

Background: Waterpipe (WP) smoking has been linked to reduced birth weight, genetic damage, and respiratory and cardiovascular disease, possibly via enhanced exposure to carbon monoxide and volatile aldehydes.

Objective: The effect of long-term WP smoking on cardiac autonomic function at rest and following exercise was investigated.

Methods: Twenty males volunteered and were divided into two groups: WP smokers (WPS) and non-smokers (NSmk). Heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and following (10 mins) Wingate test was examined. Additionally, heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 (HRR1), 2 (HRR2) and 5 mins (HRR5) post-Wingate test were considered.

Results: At rest, the WPS group exhibited a significantly greater heart rate and lower standard deviation of RR intervals. The WPS group experienced a significantly greater peak heart rate while the post-Wingate recovery of HRV, HRR1, and HRR2 were similar between groups. In contrast, HRR5 for the WPS group was significantly greater than for the NSmk group.

Conclusions: Long-term WP smoking resulted in an altered resting cardiac autonomic state exemplified by reduced overall HRV, specifically, a decline in vagal activity and/or relative increase in sympathetic activity that may persist during anaerobic exercise but not during early recovery.

Keywords: heart rate variability, Wingate anaerobic test, heart rate recovery, hookah

Received: January 26, 2018; Accepted: March 10, 2018; Prepublished online: March 23, 2018; Published: March 31, 2018Show citation

ACS AIP APA ASA Harvard Chicago IEEE ISO690 MLA NLM Turabian Vancouver
Ahmadian, M., Ghorbani, S., Dabidi Roshan, V., & Leicht, A.S. (2018). Influence of waterpipe smoking on cardiac autonomic function at rest and following high-intensity anaerobic exercise. Acta Gymnica48(1), 36-43. doi: 10.5507/ag.2018.006.
Download citation

References

  1. Ahmadian, M., Roshan, V. D., & Hosseinzadeh, M. (2015). Parasympathetic reactivation in children: Influence of two various modes of exercise. Clinical Autonomic Research, 25, 207-212. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Al Haddad, H., Laursen, P. B., Ahmaidi, S., & Buchheit, M. (2009). Nocturnal heart rate variability following supramaximal intermittent exercise. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 4, 435-447. Go to PubMed...
  3. Al Haddad, H., Laursen, P. B., Chollet, D., Lemaitre, F., Ahmaidi, S., & Buchheit, M. (2010). Effect of cold or thermoneutral water immersion on post-exercise heart rate recovery and heart rate variability indices. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 156, 111-116. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Arai, Y., Saul, J. P., Albrecht, P., Hartley, L. H., Lilly, L. S., Cohen, R. J., & Colucci, W. S. (1989). Modulation of cardiac autonomic activity during and immediately afterexercise. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 256, H132-H141. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. Aslam, H. M., Saleem, S., German, S., & Qureshi, W. A. (2014). Harmful effects of shisha: Literature review. International Archives of Medicine, 7, 16. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Barutcu, I., Esen, A. M., Kaya, D., Turkmen, M., Karakaya, O., Melek, M., … Basaran, Y. (2005). Cigarette smoking and heart rate variability: Dynamic influence of parasympathetic and sympathetic maneuvers. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 10, 324-329. Go to original source...
  7. Bernardi, L., Wdowczyk-Szulc, J., Valenti, C., Castoldi, S., Passino, C., Spadacini, G., & Sleight, P. (2000). Effects of controlled breathing, mental activity and mental stress with or without verbalization on heart rate variability. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 35, 1462-1469. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  8. Brubaker, P. H., & Kitzman, D. W. (2011). Chronotropic incompetence: Causes, consequences, and management. Circulation, 123, 1010-1020. Go to original source...
  9. Buchheit, M., Laursen, P. B., & Ahmaidi, S. (2007). Parasympathetic reactivation after repeated sprint exercise. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 293, H133-H141. Go to original source...
  10. Cha, K. S., Seo, M. K., Ryu, H. Y., Nam, J. J., & Sung, D. J. (2015). Smoking-suppressed heart rate recovery in young male college students who regularly exercised. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 44, 1146-1147.
  11. Cobb, C. O., Sahmarani, K., Eissenberg, T., & Shihadeh, A. (2012). Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a "healthy" tobacco-free alternative. Toxicology Letters, 215, 70-75. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. Cole, C. R., Foody, J. M., Blackstone, E. H., & Lauer, M. S. (2000). Heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise testing as a predictor of mortality in a cardiovascularly healthy cohort. Annals of Internal Medicine, 132, 552-555. Go to original source...
  13. Currie, K. D., Rosen, L. M., Millar, P. J., McKelvie, R. S., & MacDonald, M. J. (2013). Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38, 644-650. Go to original source...
  14. Dong, J. G. (2016). The role of heart rate variability in sports physiology. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 11, 1531-1536. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. Eissenberg, T., & Shihadeh, A. (2009). Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: Direct comparison of toxicant exposure. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37, 518-523. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Esco, M. R., & Williford, H. N. (2013). Relationship between post-exercise heart rate variability and skinfold thickness. SpringerPlus, 2, 389. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Goulopoulou, S., Fernhall, B., & Kanaley, J. A. (2009). Hemodynamic responses and linear and non-linear dynamics of cardiovascular autonomic regulation following supramaximal exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 105, 525-531. Go to original source...
  18. Goulopoulou, S., Heffernan, K. S., Fernhall, B., Yates, G., Baxter-Jones, A., & Unnithan, V. B. (2006). Heart rate variability during recovery from a Wingate test in adolescent males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38, 875-881. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. Grad, C. (2015). Heart rate variability and heart rate recovery as prognostic factors. Clujul Medical, 88, 304-309. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. Guasch, E., & Nattel, S. (2013). CrossTalk proposal: Prolonged intense exercise training does lead to myocardial damage. Journal of Physiology, 591, 4939-4941. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. Islami, F., Torre, L. A., & Jemal, A. (2015). Global trends of lung cancer mortality and smoking prevalence. Translational Lung Cancer Research, 4, 327-338.
  22. Kobayashi, Y., Takeuchi, T., Hosoi, T., & Loeppky, J. A. (2004). Effects of habitual smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to sub-maximal exercise. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 23, 163-169. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. Koubaa, A., Triki, M., Trabelsi, H., Masmoudi, L., Zeghal, K. N., Sahnoun, Z., & Hakim, A. (2015). Effect of low-intensity continuous training on lung function and cardiorespiratory fitness in both cigarette and hookah smokers. African Health Sciences, 15, 1170-1181. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Lavie, C. J., Milani, R. V., Marks, P., & de Gruiter, H. (2001). Exercise and the heart: Risks, benefits, and recommendations for providing exercise prescriptions. Ochsner Journal, 3, 207-213. Go to PubMed...
  25. Layoun, N., Saleh, N., Barbour, B., Awada, S., Rachidi, S., Al-Hajje, A., … Salameh, P. (2014). Waterpipe effects on pulmonary function and cardiovascular indices: A comparison to cigarette smoking in real life situation. Inhalation Toxicology, 26, 620-627. Go to original source...
  26. Leicht, A. S., Crowther, R. G., & Golledge, J. (2011). Influence of peripheral arterial disease and supervised walking on heart rate variability. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 54, 1352-1359. Go to original source...
  27. Levin, F. R., Levin, H. R., & Nagoshi, C. (1992). Autonomic functioning and cigarette smoking: Heart rate spectral analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 639-643. Go to original source...
  28. Liao, F., Brooks, I., Hsieh, C.-W., Rice, I. M., Jankowska, M. M., & Jan, Y.-K. (2014). Assessing complexity of heart rate variability in people with spinal cord injury using local scale exponents. Conference Proceedings of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2014, 6381-6384. Go to original source...
  29. Liu, Y., Pleasants, R. A., Croft, J. B., Wheaton, A. G., Heidari, K., Malarcher, A. M., … Strange, C. (2015). Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥ 45 years with a smoking history. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 10, 1409-1409. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Medeiros, A. R., del Rosso, S., Leicht, A. S., Hautala, A. J., & Boullosa, D. A. (2017). Methods of assessment of the post-exercise cardiac autonomic recovery: Additional important factors to be considered. International Journal of Cardiology, 239, 23. Go to original source...
  31. Middlekauff, H. R., Park, J., & Moheimani, R. S. (2014). Adverse effects of cigarette and noncigarette smoke exposure on the autonomic nervous system: Mechanisms and implications for cardiovascular risk. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64, 1740-1750. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  32. Myers, J., Tan, S. Y., Abella, J., Aleti, V., & Froelicher, V. F. (2007). Comparison of the chronotropic response toexercise and heart rate recovery in predicting cardiovascular mortality. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 14, 215-221. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  33. Papathanasiou, G., Georgakopoulos, D., Papageorgiou, E., Zerva, E., Michalis, L., Kalfakakou, V., & Evangelou, A. (2013). Effects of smoking on heart rate at rest and during exercise, and on heart rate recovery, in young adults. Hellenic Journal of Cardiolology, 54, 168-177.
  34. Patwardhan, A. R., Evans, J. M., Bruce, E. N., Eckberg, D. L., & Knapp, C. F. (1995). Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78, 2087-2094. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  35. Penttilä, J., Helminen, A., Jartti, T., Kuusela, T., Huikuri, H. V., Tulppo, M. P., … Scheinin, H. (2001). Time domain, geometrical and frequency domain analysis of cardiac vagal outflow: Effects of various respiratory patterns. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 21, 365-376. Go to original source...
  36. Perkins, S. E., Jelinek, H. F., Al-Aubaidy, H. A., & de Jong, B. (2017). Immediate and long term effects of endurance and high intensity interval exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, 312-316. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  37. Pierpont, G. L., & Voth, E. J. (2004). Assessing autonomic function by analysis of heart rate recovery from exercise in healthy subjects. American Journal of Cardiology, 94, 64-68. Go to original source...
  38. Seiler, S., Haugen, O., & Kuffel, E. (2007). Autonomic recovery after exercise in trained athletes: Intensity and duration effects. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 1366-1373. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  39. Schubert, J., Hahn, J., Dettbarn, G., Seidel, A., Luch, A., & Schulz, T. G. (2011). Mainstream smoke of the waterpipe: Does this environmental matrix reveal as significant source of toxic compounds? Toxicology Letters, 205, 279-284. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  40. Shihadeh, A., & Saleh, R. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, "tar", and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43, 655-661. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  41. Stuckey, M., Tordi, N., Mourot, L., Gurr, L., Rakobowchuk, M., Millar, P., … Kamath, M. (2012). Autonomic recovery following sprint interval exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 22, 756-763. Go to original source...
  42. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology the North American Society of Pacing Electrophysiology. (1996). Heart rate variability: Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Circulation, 93, 1043-1065.
  43. Walker, J. F., Collins, L. C., Rowell, P. P., Goldsmith, L. J., Stamford, B. A., & Moffatt, R. J. (1999). The effect of smoking on energy expenditure and plasma catecholamine and nicotine levels during light physical activity. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1, 365-370. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  44. Younes, M., & Kivinen, G. (1984). Respiratory mechanics and breathing pattern during and following maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 57, 1773-1782.<HplDestDfn:=<HplDestDfn:=<HplDestDfn:=<HplDestDfn:=<HplDestDfn:=<HplDestDfn:= Go to original source... Go to PubMed...

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.