Acta Gymnica, 2017 (vol. 47), issue 4

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(4):171-179

Attitudes of teachers towards inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education: Validity of the ATIPDPE-R instrument in Polish cultural context

Monika Cyran1, Martin Kudláček2, Martin Block3, Iwona Malinowska-Lipień1, Joanna Zyznawska1
1 Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland;
2 Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacký University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic;
3 Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA

Background: Following the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream schools worldwide, legislative changes have recently been introduced in Poland, facilitating educational inclusion of individuals with disabilities. However, practical implementation still requires further action. Attitudes are a major determinant of teachers' behavior. Therefore, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, the instrument Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education (ATIPDPE) has been developed, and adapted to cultural contexts in several countries (e.g. South Africa, Slovenia, and Greece).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate construct validity of the revised ATIPDPE-R instrument to the Polish cultural context (ATIPDPE-R-PL), in order to prepare a reliable scale to measure the attitudes of physical education (PE) teachers towards teaching students with physical disabilities in general PE classes.

Methods: Participants were 158 in-service PE teachers (100 women and 58 men, range of age from 25 to 60, from primary and secondary schools) from Polish schools. Construct validity was obtained throughout the principal component analysis method (PCA). Reliability was estimated through Cronbach's alpha coefficient, where the value of at least .7 was accepted as satisfactory.

Results: Based on the analysis, the attitudinal scale of ATIPDPE-R-PL measured three psychological components, which came from the PCA, and explained 66% of the variance similar to the original scale.

Conclusions: The three components were positive and negative outcomes for students and negative outcomes for teachers, however items in each component varied from the original scale.

Keywords: inclusion, physical education, attitudes, Theory of Planned Behavior, construct validity

Received: February 5, 2017; Accepted: October 3, 2017; Prepublished online: November 27, 2017; Published: December 31, 2017Show citation

ACS AIP APA ASA Harvard Chicago IEEE ISO690 MLA NLM Turabian Vancouver
Cyran, M., Kudláček, M., Block, M., Malinowska-Lipień, I., & Zyznawska, J. (2017). Attitudes of teachers towards inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education: Validity of the ATIPDPE-R instrument in Polish cultural context. Acta Gymnica47(4), 171-179.
Download citation

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. Go to original source...
  2. Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behaviour (2nd ed.). Berkshire, United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  3. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting the social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  4. Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers' attitudes towards integration/inclusion: A review of the literature. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17, 129-147. Go to original source...
  5. Bartoňová, R., Kudláček, M., & Bressan, L. (2007). Attitudes of future physical educators towards teaching children with disabilities in physical education in the republic of South Africa. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomoucensis. Gymnica, 37(4), 69-75.
  6. Bełza, M. (2014). Szkolnictwo specjalne w Polsce - różne formy organizacji [Special education in Poland - different forms of organization]. Katowice, Poland: University of Silesia.
  7. Breckler, S. J., & Wiggins, E. C. (1992). On defining attitude and attitude theory: Once more with feeling. In A. R. Pratkanis, S. J. Breckler, & A. C. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 407-427). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  8. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Di Nardo, M., Kudláček, M., Tafuri, D., & Sklenaříková, J. (2014). Attitudes of preservice physical educators toward individuals with disabilities at University Parthenope of Napoli. Acta Gymnica, 44, 211-221. Go to original source...
  10. Doulkeridou, A., Evaggelinou, C., & Kudláček, M. (2010). Components of attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education in the ATIPDPE-GR Instrument for Greek physical educators. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 40(4), 63-68.
  11. Downs, P., & Willams, T. (1994). Students attitudes towards integration of people with disabilities in activity setting: A European comparison. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11, 32-34. Go to original source...
  12. Education Research and Development Centre Report. (2001). Raport o sytuacji osób niepełnosprawnych w Polsce [The situation of persons with disabilities in Poland]. Retrieved from http://www.cbe.ahe.lodz.pl/archiwalna_cbrk/sytuacja%20osob.pdf
  13. Folsom-Meek, S. L., & Rizzo, T. L. (2002). Validating the Physical Educators' Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities III (PEATID III) Survey for Future Professionals. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 124-154. Go to original source...
  14. Hardman, K. (2008). The situation of physical education in schools: A European perspective. Human Movement, 9, 5-18. Go to original source...
  15. Kudláček, M. (2007). Components of attitudes towards inclusion of students with physical disabilities in physical education in the revised "ATIPDPE-R" instrument/scale for prospective Czech educators. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 37(1), 13-18.
  16. Kudláček, M., Blanková, B., & Filipčič, T. (2007). Indicators of attitudes towards inclusion of students with physical disabilities in PE in the "ATIPDPE-SL" instrument for prospective Slovene physical educators and general educators. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 13(2), 43-51.
  17. Kudláček, M., Válková, H., Sherrill, C., Myers, B., & French, R. (2002). An inclusion instrument based on plannedbehavior theory for prospective physical educators. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19, 280-299. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Martin, K., & Kudláček, M. (2010). Attitudes of pre-service teachers in an Australian university towards inclusion of students with physical disabilities in general physical education programs. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 3, 30-48.
  19. Morgulec-Adamowicz, N., Molik, B., Kosmol, A., Bednarczuk, G., Błeszyński, J. J., Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, K. M., … Woynarowska, B. (2015). Adaptowana aktywność fizyczna dla fizjoterapeutów [Adapted physical activity for physical therapist]. Warsaw, Poland: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.
  20. O'Brien, D., Kudláček, M., & Howe, P. D. (2009). A contemporary review of English language literature on inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education: A European perspective. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 2, 46-61. Go to PubMed...
  21. Omianowski, M. (2008). Dziecko niepełnosprawne na lekcji wychowania fizycznego w szkole masowej [Child with disability in physical education class in mainstream school] Retrieved from http://wychowaniefizyczne.pl/userfiles/_download/inne_michniep.pdf
  22. Papadopoulou, D., Kokaridas, D., Papanikolaou, Z., & Patsiaouras, A. (2004). Attitudes of Greek physical education teachers toward inclusion of students with disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 19, 104-111.
  23. Polish Ministry of National Education. (2014). Ocenianie na zajęciach wychowania fizycznego [Students evaluation in physical education]. Retrieved from https://men.gov.
  24. pl/zycie-szkoly/abc-wychowania-fizycznego/6-ocenianie-zajec-wf.html
  25. Rizzo, T. L., & Vispoel, W. P. (1991). Physical educators' attributes and attitudes toward teaching students with handicaps. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 8, 4-11. Go to original source...
  26. Sherrill, C., & O'Connor, J. (1999). Guidelines for improving adapted physical activity research. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 16, 1-8. Go to original source...
  27. Starczewska, A., Hodkinson, A., & Adams, G. (2012). Conception of inclusion and inclusive education: A critical examination of the perspectives and practice of teachers in Poland. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12, 162-169. Go to original source...
  28. System Edukacji Oświatowej. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.cie.men.gov.pl/index.php/dane-statystyczne/139l
  29. Táboas-Pais, M. I., & Rey-Cao, A. (2012). Disability in physical education textbooks: An analysis of image content. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 29, 310-328. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Tripp, A., & Rizzo, T. (2006). Disability labels affect physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 23, 310-326. Go to original source...
  31. Zajączkowska, J. (2014). Jak umożliwić dziecku z niepełnosprawnością ruchową udział w lekcjach wychowanie fizycznego? [How to enable a child with physical disability participate in physical education classes?]. Warsaw, Poland: Ośrodek Rozwoju Edukacji.
  32. Zimbardo, P. G., & Leippe, M. R. (1991). The psychology of attitude change and social influence. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.