Acta Gymnica, 2017 (vol. 47), issue 2

Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(2):64-71 | 10.5507/ag.2017.010

Pubertal development, physical activity, and sedentary behavior among South Korean adolescents

Eun-Young Lee, Valerie Carson, John C. Spence
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

Background: Sex differences in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are well-established. However, recent research suggested that variations in pubertal development may explain sex differences in PA and SB among adolescents.

Objective: This study examined whether pubertal development mediates the relationship between sex and PA, and SB respectively.

Methods: The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey included data from 74,186 students in grades 7 to 12 (mean age = 14.94 ± 1.8; 48.5% girls). Pubertal development was indicated by the year in which the student reported they had experienced menarche for girls and semenarche for boys. Testing for mediation involved a bootstrapping resampling approach with self-reported PA and SB as criterion variables and taking into account covariates (chronological age, body mass index, school type, household income, and parental education).

Results: Boys engaged in PA more frequently (3.30 ± 2.1 vs. 2.29 ± 1.7 day/week) and spent less time in SB (2.75 ± 1.2 vs. 2.93 ± 1.2 hr/day) than girls. Direct effects were found between sex and PA (β = -0.58 ± .01; p < .05), and sex and SB (β = 0.17 ± 0.01; p < .05). Pubertal development did not significantly mediate the relationship between sex and PA (β = 0.00; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [BC 95% CI] [-0.01, 0.01]). Though pubertal development significantly mediated the association between sex and SB, the effect was small (β = 0.01; BC 95% CI [0.00, 0.02]).

Conclusions: Sex appears to be an important predictor of PA and SB. Nonetheless, it is most likely that a combination of individual (e.g., psychological, biological) and sociocultural factors contribute to adolescents' movement behavior.

Keywords: puberty, adolescence, energy expenditure, KYRBS

Received: January 5, 2017; Accepted: May 9, 2017; Prepublished online: May 26, 2017; Published: June 30, 2017

Download citation

References

  1. Adamo, K. B., Prince, S. A., Tricco, A. C., Connor-Gorber, S., & Tremblay, M. (2009). A comparison of indirect versus direct measures for assessing physical activity in the pediatric population: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 4, 2-27. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Bitar, A., Vernet, J., Coudert, J., & Vermorel, M. (2000). Longitudinal changes in body composition, physical capacities and energy expenditure in boys and girls during the onset of puberty. European Journal of Nutrition, 39, 157-163. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Carson, V., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Gray, C. E., Poitras, V. J., Chaput, J. P., ... Kho, M. E. (2016). Systematic review of sedentary behavior and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: An update 1. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41, S240-S265. Go to original source...
  4. Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C. L., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports, 22, 1-9.
  5. Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Wong, S. L., Saunders, T. J., Carson, V., & Tremblay, M. S. (2013). The association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey. BMC Public Health, 13, 200-208. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Cumming, S. P., Sherar, L. B., Pindus, D. M., Coelho-e-Silva, M. J., Malina, R. M., & Jardine, P. R. (2012). A biocultural model of maturity-associated variance in adolescent physical activity. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 23-43. Go to original source...
  7. Cumming, S. P., Standage, M., Gillison, F., & Malina, R. M. (2008). Sex differences in exercise behavior during adolescence: Is biological maturation a confounding factor? Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 480-485. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  8. Dorn, L. D., Dahl, R. E., Woodward, H. R., & Biro, F. (2006). Defining the boundaries of early adolescence: A user's guide to assessing pubertal status and pubertal timing in research with adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 10, 30-56. Go to original source...
  9. Eisenmann, J. C., & Wickel, E. E. (2009). The biological basis of physical activity in children: Revisited. Pediatric Exercise Science, 21, 257-272. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Goran, M. I., Gower, B. A., Nagy, T. R., & Johnson, R. K. (1998). Developmental changes in energy expenditureand physical activity in children: Evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before puberty. Pediatrics, 101, 887-891. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD. Nature, 466, 29. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. ICEF Monitor. (2014, January 23). High performance, high pressure in South Korea's education system. Retrieved from http://monitor.icef.com/2014/01/high-performance-high-pressure-in-south-koreas-education-system/
  13. Im, E.-O., & Choe, M.-A. (2004). Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity. Research in Nursing & Health, 27, 4-18. Go to original source...
  14. Johansson, G., & Westerterp, K. R. (2008). Assessment of the physical activity level with two questions: Validation with doubly labeled water. International Journal of Obesity, 32, 1031-1033. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. Kim, Y., Choi, S., Chun, C., Park, S., Khang, Y.-H., & Oh, K. (2016). Data resource profile: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). International Journal of Epidemiology, 45, 1076-1076e. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Reliability and validity of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey Questionnaire. Cheongwon, South Korea: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  17. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, & Ministry of Health and Welfare. (2012). The Eighth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey: Survey summaries. Cheongwon, South Korea: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  18. Leatherdale, S. T., & Harvey, A. (2015). Examining communication and media-based recreational sedentary behaviors among Canadian youth: Results from the COMPASS study. Preventive Medicine, 74, 74-80. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. Lee, E.-Y., An, K., Jeon, J., Rodgers, W., Harber, V., & Spence, J. (2016). Biological maturation and physical activity in South Korean adolescent girls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48, 2454-2461. Go to original source...
  20. Lee, E.-Y., & Spence, J. C. (2016). Pubertal development and screen time among South Korean adolescents: Testing body mass index and psychological well-being as mediators. Global Health Research and Policy, 1, 19. Go to original source...
  21. Lee, E.-Y., Spence, J. C., Song, Y. K., & Jeon, J. Y. (2015). A systematic review of the correlates of Korean girls' physical activity: An ecological perspective. Health and Social Science, 40, 5-28.
  22. Lee, E.-Y., Yi, K. J., Walker, G. J., & Spence, J. C. (2016). Preferred leisure type, value orientations, and psychological well-being among East Asian youth. Leisure Sciences. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/01490400.2016.1209139 Go to original source...
  23. Malina, R. M. (2008). Biocultural factors in developing physical activity levels. In A. L. Smith & S. J. H. Biddle (Eds.), Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior (pp. 141-166). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
  24. Milton, K., Clemes, S., & Bull, F. (2013). Can a single question provide an accurate measure of physical activity? British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, 44-48. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Moon, J. S., Lee, S. Y., Nam, C. M., Choi, J.-M., Choe, B.-K., Seo, J.-W., ... Lee, C. G. (2008). 2007 Korean NationalGrowth Charts: Review of developmental process and an outlook. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 51, 1-25. Go to original source...
  26. Negriff, S., & Susman, E. J. (2011). Pubertal timing, depression, and externalizing problems: A framework, review, and examination of gender differences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 717-746. Go to original source...
  27. Patton, G. C., & Viner, R. (2007). Pubertal transitions in health. Lancet, 369, 1130-1139. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Poitras, V. J., Gray, C. E., Borghese, M. M., Carson, V., Chaput, J. P., Janssen, I., ... Sampson, M. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth 1. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41, S197-S239. Go to original source...
  29. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Rodrigues, A. M., Silva, M. J. C. E., Mota, J., Cumming, S. P., Sherar, L. B., Neville, H., & Malina, R. M. (2010). Confounding effect of biologic maturation on sex differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science, 22, 442-453. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  31. Sherar, L. B., Cumming, S. P., Eisenmann, J. C., Baxter-Jones, A. D., & Malina, R. M. (2010). Adolescent biological maturity and physical activity: Biology meets behavior. Pediatric Exercise Science, 22, 332-349. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  32. Sherar, L. B., Esliger, D. W., Baxter-Jones, A. D., & Tremblay, M. S. (2007). Age and gender differences in youth physical activity: Does physical maturity matter? Medicine &Science in Sports &Exercise, 39, 830-835. Go to original source...
  33. Song, Y., Ma, J., Wang, H.-J., Wang, Z., Lau, P. W. C., & Agardh, A. (2015). Age at spermarche: 15-year trend and its association with body mass index in Chinese school-aged boys. Pediatric Obesity, 11, 369-374. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  34. Song, Y., Yang, H. I., Lee, E.-Y., Yu, M.-S., Kang, M. J., Kang, H. J., ... Jeon, J. Y. (2016). Results from South Korea's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(Suppl. 2), S274-S278. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  35. Thompson, A. M., Baxter-Jones, A. D., Mirwald, R. L., & Bailey, D. A. (2003). Comparison of physical activity in male and female children: Does maturation matter? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 1684-1690. Go to original source...
  36. Troped, P. J., Wiecha, J. L., Fragala, M. S., Matthews, C. E., Finkelstein, D. M., Kim, J., & Peterson, K. E. (2007). Reliability and validity of YRBS physical activity items among middle school students. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 416-425. Go to original source...
  37. World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health 2010. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2010/9789241599979_eng.pdf
  38. World Health Organization. (2011). The sexual and reproductive health of younger adolescents: Research issues in developing countries 2011. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501552_eng.pdf
  39. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. (2016, August 11). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/yrbs/index.htm