Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2012 (vol. 42), issue 4

Mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism in sport

Jernej Pisk

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 9-17 | 10.5507/ag.2012.019

Background: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings) different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. Objective: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied...

The second version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children: A comparative study in 7-10 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

Rudolf Psotta, Jan Hendl, Karel Fromel, Michal Lehnert

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 19-27 | 10.5507/ag.2012.020

Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) is one of the most frequently used instruments for motor assessment in children. The norms for motor performance in the tests of the revised second version of the battery (MABC-2) were established from the study with the representative sample of the United Kingdom (UK) population of children. Assessment of motor function development derived from results of the motor tests in children can be affected by some social and cultural factors. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the original norms of the MABC-2 for use in the Czech Republic. Methods:...

Relationships between levels of motor coordination, attention and physical activity in children: The mediation model

Jakub Kokštejn, Rudolf Psotta, Pavel Frýbort

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 29-40 | 10.5507/ag.2012.021

Background: Current findings suggest that physical activity of children with developmental difficulties may be limited by low level of motor coordination. Motor difficulties are often connected with children suffering from attention deficit disorder. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the level of physical activity (PA) in older school-age children with motor difficulties (MD) in comparison with children without MD and to reveal possible mediate impact on attention between the level of motor skills and PA in children of this age. Methods: Participants were divided into two groups: 15 children with MD (age 13.7 ±...

Physical activity of inhabitants in the Czech Republic with regard to their employment

Dagmar Sigmundová, Erik Sigmund, Karel Frömel

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 41-47 | 10.5507/ag.2012.022

Background: The absence of a paid job has been especially in economically advanced countries associated with a range of negative factors. Unemployment is not only a factor influencing the quality of life but it is also a correlate of physical activity (PA). Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze physical activity in a random sample of inhabitants of the Czech Republic with regard to employment. It focuses not only on total PA but also on PA intensity and its different types. Methods: The level of performed PA and its types were assessed using the IPAQ questionnaire, internationally standardized long administrative version...

Neighborhood environment and walking for transport and recreation in Central European older adults

Jana Pelclová, Karel Frömel, Ladislav Bláha, Izabela Zając-Gawlak, Lenka Tlučáková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 49-56 | 10.5507/ag.2012.023

Background: Neighborhood environment is an aspect that influences physical activity, mainly walking. Hence, built environment research may help to use environmental and policy strategies to increase physical activity. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood environment and meeting the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of walking 5 or more days a week within active transportation and leisure-time domains in Central European older adults. Methods: Four hundred and fifty six healthy ambulatory older adults filled out the modified and culturally adapted version...

The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

Eliška Martinásková, Lucie Honzíková, Miroslav Janura, Zdeněk Svoboda

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(4): 57-63 | 10.5507/ag.2012.024

Background: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. Objective: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral) on foot loading during gait. Methods: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years) and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years). The control group comprised of 14 children (age...