Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2011 (vol. 41), issue 3

Analysis of the beginning of the early flight phase of the ski jump in athletes with different performance levels

Miroslav Janura, Lee Cabell, Zdeněk Svoboda, Milan Elfmark, Eva Janurová

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 7-13 | 10.5507/ag.2011.015

Background: Obtaining a long jumping distance is necessary in order to succeed among the best competitors in the Nordic combined. The body movement during the take-off and early flight is considered to be the most important factor for length of the jump. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the technique of the start of the early flight phase among three groups of Nordic combined competitors representing different performance levels, and to compare them with a group of ski jumpers. Methods: Thirty competitors from both sport disciplines (Nordic combined and ski jumping), who performed ski jumps using an HS-134 m...

The relationship between pelvis inclination, exercise and low back pain (LBP) during pregnancy

Eva Tlapáková, Karel Jelen, Marcela Minaříková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 15-21 | 10.5507/ag.2011.016

Background: Pain in the lower region of the back and pelvis - also called "Low Back Pain" (LBP) - is very frequent during pregnancy. According to many authors it is a major complaint of more than half of all pregnant women; it causes mental and physical discomfort. The etiology of LBP during pregnancy is still not fully known. Objective: The main aim of our research was to objectify the relationship between the presence of LBP, the training level of the postural muscles and the degree of the pelvic inclination of women in the third trimester of pregnancy. That is why the relationship between pelvic inclination and LBP occurrence is compared...

Sports context of the original families of three generations of national football team players

Jaromír Votík, Hana Válková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 23-32 | 10.5507/ag.2011.017

Background: Family context is considered to be an important phenomenon influencing life-span sports careers. In spite of this fact,the role of family as related to different historical changes is rarely investigated. The research concept of the study is based on the "theory of transition" (early sports socialization) and on the principle of "generation transfer" (parent-child interaction) within various micro (family) and macro (socio-economic) contexts. Objective: The aim of the presented study is to find out the relationship between family context and early sports socialization in families of national football team players in the Czech...

Volleyball players training intensity monitoring through the use of spectral analysis of heart rate variability during a training microcycle

Pavel Háp, Pavel Stejskal, Aleš Jakubec

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 33-38 | 10.5507/ag.2011.018

Background: Volleyball players in different specializations are required to meet specific demands in terms of movement behaviour and skills performance. These specific demands need to be individualized according to the training ability level (adaptability to sports training) of particular players, which is mainly dependent on the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) gives us information on cardiac activity regulation, where the activity of ANS participates in a significant way. Longitudinal assessment of SA HRV within a certain part of a training period can help us to observe the...

School and weekend physical activity of 15-16 year-old Czech, Slovak and Polish adolescents

Petra Nováková Lokvencová, Karel Frömel, František Chmelík, Dorota Groffik, Viera Bebčáková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 39-45 | 10.5507/ag.2011.019

Background: When it comes to physical activity, adolescents are the group at the highest risk. When monitoring physical activity in adolescents, it is necessary to differentiate school and weekend days. School days are crucial in adolescents' weekly physical activity. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify to what extent the school day and weekend physical activity levels differ in Czech, Polish and Slovakian boys and girls with different cultural and education backgrounds in Central Europe. Methods: The research was carried out in the Czech Republic in Moravia (11 schools, 383 participants), in Poland in the Katowice...

Bone mineral density and accelerometer-determined habitual physical activity and inactivity in postmenopausal women

Jana Pelclová, Aleš Gába, Ondřej Kapuš

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(3): 47-53 | 10.5507/ag.2011.020

Background: In postmenopausal women, physical activity appears to be important in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis and thus contributes to the reduction of fracture risk. Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the differences in habitual physical activity, physical inactivity and meeting physical activity recommendations between women with normal femoral BMD and women with osteopenia. Methods: Out of the ninety-two postmenopausal women analyzed in this study, 72.8% women had normal femoral BMD and 27.2% women were osteopenic. Their BMD and body composition were measured using...