Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2011 (vol. 41), issue 1

Autonomic nervous system activity assessment in recreational half marathon runners

Michal Botek, Pavel Stejskal, Michal Šafář, David Smékal

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 7-14 | 10.5507/ag.2011.001

Background: Spectral analysis (SA) of heart rate variability (HRV) is considered to be a non invasive method for the quantification of autonomic cardiac activity in relationship to the sinoatrial node. It is well known that autonomic regulation is affected by various stress factors such as anxiety and/or physical activity. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-competitive anxiety on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, further, to monitor the time course of ANS recovery as well as perceived fatigue during 24 hours of a post-half marathon period in amateur runners. Methods: The SA...

Comparison of body composition between two elite women's volleyball teams

Tomáš Malý, Lucia Malá, František Zahálka, Jiří Baláš, Miroslav Čada

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 15-22 | 10.5507/ag.2011.002

Background: In sport and in top performance sport in particular, the continuous monitoring of body composition (BC) may regulate the training process, affecting positively athletes' top form. BC is, therefore, considered to be one of the components of the physical fitness of athletes. Research studies dealing with BC in women volleyball players are often focused on a lower performance level when compared with the submitted study. The problem in the field of results comparison is with the variety in the methodology used in BC assessment. Objective: The objective of our study is to describe the body composition (BC) profile of top performance...

Two ways of conceiving time in sports

Irena Martínková, Jim Parry

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 23-31 | 10.5507/ag.2011.003

Background: This paper explores a foundational concept for our understanding of sport - the concept of time. Objective: The objective of this paper is to explain two different concepts of time in sport. Methods: Our methodology is philosophical, involving both conceptual and phenomenological analysis and the application of the outcomes to sports practice. Results: First, two concepts of time and their role in sport are discussed - time as linear, measurable, homogeneous and objective; and time as discussed in the philosophy of existence, namely in the work of Martin Heidegger, in which he introduces the concept of "original...

Physical activity and health related environment preferences among students from the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education

Edita Vainienė

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 33-41 | 10.5507/ag.2011.004

Background: The physical activity preferences (PAP) and attitude towards health's promotion among freshers from different classes while maintaining a constant level of physical activity (PA) intervention. Objective: To determine changes in the PAP of future physical education teachers and health educators. Methods: The studies were carried out in 2000 and 2008 year with students from Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education (LAPE). A standardized, self administered questionnaire was filled in by 577 fresher students (244 males and 333 females). Results: There were fewer students who wanted to attend a special health training...

The impact of competition in physical activity and sport on the self-perception of individuals with physical disabilities

Michael Cocquyt, Erik Sigmund

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 43-50 | 10.5507/ag.2011.005

Background: Physical activity has traditionally been treated as one of many strategies to improve an individual's quality of life. Until fairly recently, this presumption has been accepted as truth and little research has been done on proving or disproving the claim. Now, there has been a larger focus on it and numerous studies have analyzed the contribution physical activity has on the individual's quality of life in all areas. Objective: This study analyzes the current literature in the area of physical activity and sport as related to self-perception and the overall quality of life in individuals with physical disabilities. Methods:...

A comparison of physical education (PE) development in the Czech Republic, Germany, and the USA - A historical perspective

Petr Vlček

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 51-59 | 10.5507/ag.2011.006

Background: After the year 1989, political, structural and economic reforms caused significant changes in education in the Czech Republic, also affecting physical education (PE). Within the context of unification and globalization there are similar changes in progress in other countries. Objective: The complex situation, fast changes and various pedagogical traditions complicate the creation of a systematic view of the current PE reforms. The objective of this paper is to describe the most important events in the history of PE in the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA and to explain their effect on the PE curriculum changes in the selected...

Surface electromyography assessment of muscle activation patterns while sitting down in young healthy women and patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Amr Mohamed Zaki Zaatar, Jaroslav Opavský, Petr Uhlíř

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2011 41(1): 61-66 | 10.5507/ag.2011.007

Background: Muscle activation patterns depend on many factors. Surface electromyography (SEMG) can reveal these patterns in subjects of different ages and health states. We studied patterns of muscle activation in two groups of subjects - healthy young women (as a control group) and patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to register and compare muscle activation patterns while sitting down in these two groups in four situations with different positions of the lower and upper limbs. Methods: Muscle activity was registered with the use of 8 channel surface polyelectromyography (Noraxon-Myosystem...