Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2010 (vol. 40), issue 1

The hero in victory and loss

Ivo Jirásek, Donald N. Roberson

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 7-14

Background: Every game and competition contains the suspense caused by the possibilities of winning or losing. Adding to this, most cultures incorporate the concept of a hero and its significance in the life of the citizens. Objective: The objective and purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of the concept of hero. This includes a discussion of the "agon motive", that is the principle distinguished by interpersonal rivalry and by the process of the acceptance of challenges. Methods: Our methodology is a historical, rhetorical, and philosophical perspective outlining the history of the concept of hero. Further argument...

Enrolling 6-8 year old children in alpine skiing courses in Slovenia

Nina Makuc, Mateja Videmšek, Jože Štihec

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 15-22

Background: Skiing is clearly a sport activity most children enjoy practising and are thus happy to enroll in various courses organised by skiing schools, societies and clubs. Objective: The study aimed to analyse parents' reasons for and interests in enrolling their children in an Alpine skiing course and to establish how parents' education and monthly income levels relate to the frequency of children attending a skiing course. Methods: We surveyed 250 parents of 6 to 8 year old children using a questionnaire with 17 variables. Frequencies and contingency tables were calculated. The statistical significance of relationships...

Concentration of attention as a predisposition of performance in junior categories in endurance sports

Lenka Kovářová, Karel Kovář

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 23-31

Background: From the chosen studies done in endurance multithlon athletes and endurance athletes generally (Nideffer, 1995; Nideffer & Bond, 1989; Nideffer & Bond, 1998; Nideffer, 2000; Hátlová, 2000 and others) it follows that one of the most important psychological predispositions for maximal performance is the ability to concentrate one's attention. Objective: The aim was to find out differences in concentration of attention in extremely endurance-loaded adolescents. The research involved 57 triathletes of age 15-22 years, members of youth sport centers in the Czech Republic, divided into groups according to particular competition...

The assessment of the extent of the recovery of hand sensorimotor functions in the group of rehabilitated patients after stroke in the post-acute stage

Kateřina Macháčková, Jana Vyskotová, Jaroslav Opavský, Hana Sochorová

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 33-44

Background: Although the deficit of hand sensomotory functions is very common in patients after stroke, the algorithm of their renewal is relatively little known. It is not clear whether the extent or type of somatosensory dysfunction correlates with an impeded process of motorics renewal. Objective: This study was focused on observation of hand sensorimotor functions in a group of patients in postacute phase after ischemic stroke, localized in artery cerebri media. The aim was to find out the extent of improvement of somatosensory and motor hand functions. This is the first stage of a research project which will be followed by the observation...

Muscle activation in healthy subjects during single step up

Elisa Isabel Yanac Paredes, Jaroslav Opavský

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 45-51

Background: The single step up is an integral movement performance for functional mobility and activities of daily living. During this activity the body has to be able to keep its balance and maintain a stable upright posture for performing voluntary movement. For this purpose the central nervous system creates different motor programs specific to the task. A motor programme is believed to contain the pre-programmed sequence of muscle activity prior to the initiation of the task, and includes both the muscle activity for the task, as well as postural muscle activity. Objective: The aim of this paper was to examine the sequence of muscular...

Functional asymmetry of the spine in standing and sitting positions

Maciej Biały, Patryk Kłaptocz, Rafał Gnat

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 53-60

Background: A sedentary lifestyle, together with functional asymmetry of the body, are potentially dysfunctional factors. Objective: In this project, the authors are trying to identify the connections between a sedentary lifestyle and the amount of functional asymmetry of the spine. Methods: Sixteen male volunteers aged 19-25 participated in the experiment. All of them were students of the University of Physical Education in Katowice. To measure trunk movement, the BTS Smart system was used. The quantity of functional asymmetry was described as a Functional Asymmetry Ratio (FAR), calculated using the trunk range of motion on...

A comparison of time characteristics in ball catching between children with and without Down's syndrome

Tjaša Filipčič

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2010 40(1): 61-67

Background: The one handed catching of a ball is a complex coordination ability. It requires the spatial and time adjustment of the hand according to the speed of the approaching ball. Objective: Two main objectives were exposed in the course of the present research; namely whether and why children with Down's syndrome (DS) have problems with one handed ball catching compared to the children with no impairment in motor task such as the one handed catching of a ball. Methods: Eleven children with DS, aged 8, and 16 with no impairment, also aged 8, were required to catch 45 balls (small, medium, and large). No spatial uncertainty...