Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2009 (vol. 39), issue 3

Physical activity and sedentary behavior in 14-15 year old students with regard to location of school

Josef Mitáš, Jiří Nykodým, Karel Frömel

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 7-11

Background: Decline in physical activity and the increased number of overweight and obese children are alarming. These factors can influence, together with the passive role of schools in lifestyle education and unhealthy urban planning, the future lifestyle of adolescents and adults. Objective: The main objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of adolescents aged 14-15 with regard to the size of the community where adolescents go to school. Methods: The short version of the IPAQ questionnaire was used to collect data in this study. The research was conducted in three selected regions...

Leisure time, occupational, domestic, and commuting physical activity of inhabitants of the Czech Republic aged 55-69: Influence of socio-demographic and environmental factors

Jana Pelclová, Jana Vašíčková, Karel Frömel, Ivana Djordjevic

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 13-20

Background: The assessment of multiple domains of physical activity is considered to be necessary for global physical activity surveillance and might be useful for the recognition of the effects of physical activity on health. Objective: The aims of this study were twofold: firstly to analyze moderate physical activity and walking within the leisure time, domestic, occupational and transport related domains of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic aged 55-69, and secondly, to investigate the socio-demographic and environmental factors which can influence meeting physical activity recommendations in leisure time, domestic, occupational...

The evaluation of body composition in relation to physical activity in 56-73 year old women: A pilot study

Aleš Gába, Jana Pelclová, Miroslava Přidalová, Jarmila Riegerová, Iva Dostálová, Lucie Engelová

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 21-30

Background: Lack of physical activity is associated with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Preventing excessive weight gain is a public health priority. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between body composition and the level of physical activity in 56-73 year old women. Methods: We divided the sample into individual subgroups according to recommendations concerning moderate physical activity and the number of steps made on average per day. Body composition was measured by means of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (InBody 720) and the accelerometer ActiGraph...

The administration of the Rorschach inkblot method and changes in autonomic nervous system activity

Emil Šiška, Martin Kudláček, Dana Štěrbová, Pavel Stejskal

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 31-42

Background: The administration of some psychological methods can be a temporary source of stress and evoke in some patients a pathophysiological reaction with a negative health outcome. Objective: The aim of the study was to find out whether the administration of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) can change the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in terms of shifting the sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic activity. Methods: The RIM test was applied to 39 healthy females (22.8 ± 2.4 years). ANS activity was measured by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV) before, during, and after the RIM...

The influence of the leader on the movement of the horse in walking during repeated hippotherapy sessions

Tereza Dvořáková, Miroslav Janura, Zdeněk Svoboda, Milan Elfmark

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 43-50

Background: The movement of a walking horse is utilized as a tool for a therapeutic effect in hippotherapy. The movement impulses of the horse's back are influenced by the movement action of its limbs, morphology, speed of walk, etc. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the leader on a horse's movement while walking during repeated hippotherapy treatment sessions. Methods: Three dimensional (3D) videography was used for the assessment of the movements of a horse (selected points on the limbs and back) and a human being (reaction to the horse's movement). The study was done with the repeated measurements...

Assessment of postural stability in patients with a transtibial amputation with various times of prosthesis use

Dagmar Kozáková, Zdeněk Svoboda, Miroslav Janura, Milan Elfmark, Ilona Nedvědová

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 51-59

Background: Postural confidence is an initial precondition for all activities within the activity of daily living. Subjects with lower limb amputation have, due to somatosensory loss of information from the lower limb, more difficult conditions for maintaining postural stability in comparison with healthy subjects. Early prosthetic fitting with a prosthesis (with regard to amputation level, health state, financial claims, etc.) is crucial for amputee reintegration into daily life. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the selected biomechanical parameters of standing stability in patients with a transtibial lower limb amputation...

Pontryagin's maximum principle and optimization of the flight phase in ski jumping

Radim Uhlář, Miroslav Janura

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2009 39(3): 61-68

Background: There are several factors (the initial ski jumper's body position and its changes at the transition to the flight phase, the magnitude and the direction of the velocity vector of the jumper's center of mass, the magnitude of the aerodynamic drag and lift forces, etc.), which determine the trajectory of the jumper ski system along with the total distance of the jump. Objective: The objective of this paper is to bring out a method based on Pontryagin's maximum principle, which allows us to obtain a solution of the optimization problem for flight style control with three constrained control variables - the angle of attack (a),...