Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2006 (vol. 36), issue 4

Philosophical and socio-cultural conditionality of human movement as a means of quality of life determination

Bohuslav Hodaň

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 7-18

The quality of life has, concededly, its predispositions. They are of course, in the human being, with regard to the structure of his/her personality, very variable. That is why, to speak about the philosophical and socio-cultural conditionality of movement as a means of quality of life determination, is very difficult. But, nevertheless, it is necessary. So, this paper examines, from the point of view of these relations, first the problem of health, further the problem of movement, respectively human movement and, consequently, the problem of physical exercises as a specific human movement behavior. It takes notice of the relation of physical exercises...

The variability assessment of the dynamic gait parameters of persons with unilateral trans-tibial amputation

Miroslav Janura, Zdeňek Svoboda, Milan Elfmark

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 19-24

Human gait is a genetically fixed motion model. The use of prosthesis changes the structure of the gait, the distribution of energy increases. The aim of this study was to compare the intra and inter individual variability of the basic dynamic gait parameters of physically active persons with unilateral trans-tibial amputation. A group of 11 males (age 46.1 ± 12.0 years, body weight 82.5 ± 13.9 kg) with unilateral trans-tibial amputation was analysed. The basic dynamic parameters (AMTI) of the gait of each subject with conventional and dynamic prosthetic foot were measured. The interindividual variability in the group of the evaluated...

Myoelectric comparison of table tennis forehand stroke using different ball sizes

Miran Kondrič, Gordana Furjan-Mandić, Vladimir Medved

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 25-31

The aim of this study was to examine the differences between forehand top spin strokes with 38 mm and 40 mm balls in table tennis. The participant was filmed as he executed the strokes. To ensure the same condition for all the performances (the same approaching ball trajectory), a table tennis machine was used. Electrodes were placed on the right side of the player's body due to his right-handedness. Absolute muscle involvement was estimated on the basis of averaged EMG signals (mV) measured in all muscles (m. biceps brachii, m. deltoideus, m. pectoralis major). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for calculating differences between overall mean...

Numerical simulation in biomechanics - a forensic example

Jiří Adamec, Matthias Graw, Norbert Praxl

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 33-38

The paper presents an example of a forensic application of biomechanical methods including numerical simulation with human body models. By means of a case study of an unwitnessed lethal fall the course of the biomechanical forensic reconstruction is demonstrated. The traces available at the place of finding and the injuries of the victim are the facts that the analysis is based on. The ultimate expected result of the biomechanical analysis is the assignment of all available traces and the explanation of the event. The injuries observed in the described case were partly typical fall injuries, but there were also some injuries that could not be prima...

Body composition as a determining factor in the aerobic fitness and physical performance of Czech children

Václav Bunc

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 39-45

Body composition (BC) may be used as a criterion of the actual biological state of children, in other words, their physical state of development. The aim of our study was to determine the interdependence of some body composition variables and aerobic fitness (VO2max.kg-1) and parameters of physical performance, ie. calculated total work (CTW) and maximal power output (MPO) on the treadmill in a group of Czech children and youth. The interdependence between frequently used indicators of aerobic fitness (VO2max.kg-1, CTW, and MPO), and BC (% BF, FFM, BCM and ECM/BCM) were studied in a group of 1235 Czech children (756 boys and 479 girls) aged from 6...

Somatic analysis of PE students within a four-year research period

Petr Kutáč, Vojtěch Gajda

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 47-51

Modern theories and studies interpret sport performance as a defined system of elements which are characterized as components, determiners, factors, etc. Somatic factors concerning the support system are supposed to be a significant factor group. Body height, weight, length, width and circuit measurements belong to the group of somatic factors and they determine physical build (frequently characterized by a somatotype). This paper deals with the physical build of 1st year PE students who can be considered a selected group of the population with a relatively large volume of physical activity. The research was carried out within the years 2001-2004,...

Relationship between children's successfulness in pre-swimming education, their temperament characteristics and stimulation to physical activities

Ludmila Miklánková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 53-62

The main aim of this inquiry was to review and evaluate possibilities of relations of preschool children's successfulness in a pre-swimming course to some outer and inner factors. We concentrated on a level of stimulation to physical activities from family and school and on temperament characteristics of monitored children. Our sample consisted of 83 children (non-swimmers) attending kindergartens. Complete results were obtained from 58 of them (30 girls and 28 boys). The mean age of the sample was 5.87 years. A degree of successfulness of a child in the pre-swimming education course, concentrated on teaching swimming fundamentals, was evaluated by...

Centile charts of motor development in girls aged between 7.5-19.5 from the Kujawsko-Pomorskie district

Marek Napierała

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(4): 63-66

The aim of the research was to present motor development with the help of centile charts, where the centile curves determine particular parts of the population: 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90 and 97 percentile. The research was conducted in the spring of 2001. A survey of 11 803 girls aged between 7.5 and 19.5 years old, from various types of rural and urban schools of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie district, was conducted. Centile charts make it possible to observe the process of the development of the examined characteristic, to answer the question as to whether an individual is at the level which is characteristic of a certain age, and, in case of aberrations, to...