Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2006 (vol. 36), issue 2

Movements of human existence as a possible background for the study of a sporting life

Miloš Bednář

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 11-16

The paper deals with movements of human existence and tries to describe a special "topography" of them - with permanent attention to the whole of human existence. We promote calling the scene of these movements a homodrom. To gain a wider background for a context of sport is a secondary aim. Firstly (I) we analyse two extreme attitudes concerning our possibilities of creating concrete and personal projects of our way of life: represented by mythological Moerae on the one hand, and especially by existentialists with their concept of "empty freedom" on the other hand. A balanced position is given by Czech philosopher Jan Patočka against the background...

A mixed methods approach to the ethical governance of Australian national sporting organisations

Jim Daly

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 17-24

This paper describes the mixed methods approach adopted for exploring the ethical governance of Australian national sporting organisations. Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were employed using survey questionnaires and focus groups.

Somaesthetics and philosophical self-cultivation: An intersection of philosophy and sport

Joan Grassbaugh Forry

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 25-28

"Somaesthetics" is a philosophical method that involves a reconceptualization of the human body and philosophy as an academic discipline. This article provides an analysis of somaesthetics as it specifically relates to philosophy of sport. Body practices performed in the context of sport are rich sites for analyzing philosophical concepts of selfawareness, self-cultivation, and self-knowledge. The implications of the disciplinary connections between sport and philosophical self-cultivation are examined.

Coaching anger: A deadly sin in a lively profession

Jeffrey P. Fry

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 29-34

According to Christian tradition, anger comprises one of the "seven deadly sins". In Eastern religious thought anger is held to be poisonous and addictive. These views point to the problematic nature of anger. Some hold, however, that anger can have an appropriate expression and a positive function. Since anger is often vented in sport, it is important to assess the significance of anger in this area of life. Coaches, in particular, frequently display anger. Given this fact, in this paper I focus on the nature of anger and its role in the coaching profession. Is there something distinctive about the role of the coach such that coaches should be granted...

Intergenerational communication and sport: From Simmel's perspective

Koyo Fukasawa

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 35-38

Can modern sport contribute to reactivating community in urbanized society? This essay, referring to the feature of urbanization, considers the significance of intergenerational communication to the regeneration of community and the character of sports for promoting exchanges among different generations. In sport activities, we can find, for example "the form of sociability". Sociability implies the ability to enjoy and relish relationships with others and supposes such an attitude.

Elective performance enhancement surgery for athletes: Should it be resisted?

Mark Hamilton

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 39-46

The following article describes some surgeries used to enhance athletic performance along with discussion of possible ones that could be used in the upcoming years for this purpose. Elective eye surgery is used by numerous athletes in sports where sight is an essential aspect of success. This raises the ethical question of whether it is morally acceptable to perform enhancement surgery for the purpose of developing capabilities that are superior to normal, such as 20/10 vision. Criteria to determine the morality of these actions is necessary, especially when the surgery is optional and is motivated not by therapeutic needs but to enhance performance...

Movement and time

Anna Hogenová

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 47-51

The author outlines the principal ideas of the relation between movement and time from phenomenological point of view.

Philosophy of sport or philosophical reflection on sport

Jerzy Kosiewicz

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 53-58

The main task of my presentation is to initiate the discussion about the contemporary position, as well as the current formal and merit situation of philosophy of sport. It is interesting to answer the following question: if we can say, that, at the present time,we have a mature, competent and independent scientific discipline or that we are involved with something like philosophical reflections on sport, which will become, in the future, an independent philosophical discipline? I am of the opinion, that the philosophy of sport has only initiated some process of structuralisation, of posing and solving manifold problems, of forming various viewpoints...

Jan Patočka's three movements of human life with respect to physical education and sport practice

Irena Martínková

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 59-66

In this contribution we present the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka and his original concept of the three fundamental movements of human life. In this concept Patočka is inspired by the philosophy of Aristotle as well as by the philosophy of existence of Heidegger. First we interpret Patočka's ideas regarding the three movements of human existence, that is, the movement of acceptance, the movement of defense and the movement of truth. After characterizing each of the three movements of human existence, we shall present our own thoughts about human movement within each given life movement, so that the differences between each of the three movements of...

What is good sport: Plato's view

Jernej Pisk

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 67-72

One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us - the modern philosophers of sport - "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical...

Athletic competition as Socratic philosophy

Heather L. Reid

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 73-77

It is not surprising to claim that athletic competition and Socratic philosophy both aim at virtue, human excellence, or aretē. But a closer look reveals that their similarities run much deeper than that. In this paper I argue that athletic competition and Socratic philosophy, as demonstrated in Plato's early dialogues, are ideally akin. To support this thesis, I offer five points of comparison. First, both agōn and elenchos are fundamentally knowledge-seeking activities aimed at the acquisition of truth and understanding. Second, both are characterized by questions that seek understanding of moral concepts on personal, general, and ideal...

Modern sport and the problem of others

Masami Sekine, Kenji Ishigaki

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 79-83

The sports issue which we wanted to examine in this paper, by proposing the viewpoint of others, is the way in which sympathies and common understandings are established among athletes. Our discussion of others does not address deontological issues (we should respect our competitors, for instance) or technical issues (how we ensure equality among athletes, for instance). We want to present the following point as our conclusion: "The foundation of sport ethics lies in body-based commonality with others."

Sharing the blame: Complicity, conspiracy, and collective responsibility in sport

Sarah Teetzel

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 85-93

While it is difficult to classify an athlete's participation in sport as solely an individual or a collective act, it is easy to make the case that there are both public and private dimensions to sport. Similarly, one can view the athletes competing in a sporting event from the reductionist perspective that sees them as individuals performing their own distinct roles, or from the collective perspective, which identifies them as a group seeking a common goal. However, an examination of athletes caught using performance-enhancing drugs and procedures banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency shows that when it comes to doping in sport, the neater, simpler,...

The space for seeking the meaning of movement activities and the meaning of the human way of being: Movement culture

Ivo Jirásek

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2006 36(2): 95-99

The paper focuses on the horizon of meaning as it can be experienced by human beings through movement activities. Although the phenomenon of meaning is not producible by natural sciences, it does not mean that philosophy could not question its validity. The meaning is apprehensible in an existential situation and it comes out clearest at the moment of the loss of the possibilities related to the concrete beingness. The meaning of life can be found in four possible areas. The answer to the question asking about the meaning is religion; the accumulation of experience situations; active work or moral acts; and the rejection of this question. The meaning...