Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2005 (vol. 35), issue 1
Jump ergometer in sport performance testing
Erika Zemková, Dušan Hamar
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 7-16
The papers deals with the application of the jump ergometer in the evaluation of neuromuscular performance. Altogether 288 athletes of different sport specializations (mean age 18.9 ± 6.4 years, height 172.2 ± 4.3 cm, and weight 62.4 ± 4.9 kg) underwent various tests on the jump ergometer, such as 10-, 60-, and 90-second repeated jumps, squat and countermovement jumps without and with an additional load, and drop jumps from different heights with and without bending the knees. The diagnostic system FiTRO Jumper consisting of a special contact switch mattress connected by means of an interface to a computer was used. Jump parameters...
Effect of regular training on body composition and physical performance in young cross-country skiers: As compared with normal controls
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 17-25
The aim of this study was to determine body composition parameters and level of physical performance together with evaluation of changes in body composition and in the level of physical performance under the influence of regular training performed during a preparatory training period in a group of young cross-country skiers (both genders), pupils of sport primary school, and the participants of ski-clubs between the ages of 12-15 years (n = 81), as compared with normal controls (n = 49). The multi-frequency BIA method (B. I. A. 2000M, Data Input, Germany) was used for determination of body composition. The level of physical performance was estimated...
Surface EMG as a method for following-up sports training efficiency
Alenka Maček Lebar, Tomaž Mercinger, Damian Miklavčič
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 27-34
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of surface electromyography (EMG) for evaluation of training related changes in muscle contractile properties. Eight nationally ranked junior tennis players participated in a six weeks training program designed to increase speed and explosiveness. Their physical characteristics were evaluated before and after the training period by: tennis-specific field tests, measuring isometric twitch contraction of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and by monitoring the frequency spectrum of the EMG at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. All the players improved the results of tennis specific...
Analysis of structure of the biathlon runs
Jarosław Cholewa, Dagmara Gerasimuk, Michał Szepelawy, Adam Zając
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 35-42
The biathlon is an Olympic sport discipline, which is a combination of two events, Nordic skiing and precision shooting. Combining events of such different psychophysical background creates great demands on the athlete and coach. The main objective of this paper was to determine which of these events has a greater impact on the final result considering the distance and sports level. The results of the World Cup and the Olympic Games in the 2001/02 season were analyzed statistically. The data indicates that the results of the run influence the final result to a higher degree than shooting does. This is especially true in the sprint and in relation to...
The effect of interventional physical activity of residential camps in nature on the habitual physical activity of females and males
Erik Sigmund, David Másilka, Dagmar Sigmundová, Karel Frömel, Milan Novák
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 43-51
The main aim of this study is to ascertain the effect of physical activity (hereafter PA) of residential camps in nature on habitual weekly PA and to compare the level of performed PA to health epidemiological recommendations. The effect of females' (n = 49) and males' (n = 27) PA at residential camps (the experiential camp GO! in Hynčice pod Sušinou, the residential camp in Lipnice nad Sázavou and the school in nature in Volyně) was assessed by comparing it to their habitual weekly PA, performed at a three-week interval after the end of these camps. PA was monitored using the accelerometer Caltrac, the pedometer Omron and individual records. PA was...
Shoulder bandage with distal traction - application to athletes overusing "overhead" activities
Luboš Hrazdira, Jarmila Skotáková, Zdeněk Florian
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 53-60
Sportsmen with overhead activities very frequently have an increased mobility of the shoulder joints. Thus it is often difficult to distinguish between stability, hyperlaxity, and instability of the joint. Repeated extreme movements strain static stabilizers and lead to their lengthening. The principal problem in sporters is to establish a balance between the mobility and stability of the shoulder joint. Clinical examinations and the following treatment should be focused not only on pain but also on the stability of the glenohumeral joint. We can encounter a whole range of possibilities from glenohumeral instability to the impingement syndrome. We...
Alternative research strategies in the exercise - mental health relationship
Peter Van de Vliet, Nanette Mutrie, Patrick Onghena
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 61-67
From the numerous investigations available, there is cautious support for the proposition that exercise is associated with enhanced emotion and mood in mental illness, but the strength of the conclusions derived from the empirical findings available will largely depend on the strength of the designs applied. In applied research, such as the investigation of the exercise - mental health relationship, this relationship depends on population, environmental and individual characteristics and a number of difficulties will certainly hinder progress in this area of inquiry. Randomised controlled trials are important but have the disadvantage of deemphasizing...
Self-perception of national team coaches in volleyball for the disabled
Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2005 35(1): 69-77
This study attempted to answer the basic questions concerning coaches of volleyball for the disabled: their self-perception, their perception of an ideal coach, and statistically significant differences among those two categories. The research sample consisted of 32 coaches of the national teams in volleyball for the disabled. Data was gathered during the European Championship in Sitting Volleyball for Women, the European Championship in Sitting Volleyball for Men and the World Cup in Standing Volleyball for Men, and were completed in 2003. The CSPL-TT94 List (Coach Self-Perception List, Tušak & Tušak, 1994) consists of 26 items about coaches'...