Acta Gymnica, 2017 (vol. 47), issue 1
Acta Gymnica 2017, 47(1):41-48 | DOI: 10.5507/ag.2017.005
Personality and sensation seeking in high-risk sports
- Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Background: Personality represents a relatively consistent and unique sum of psychological, cognitive and physical characteristics of an individual. Sensation seeking is defined as an action, characterized by the search for different, new, complex and intensive emotions and experiences and preparedness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks in order to achieve these experiences.
Objective: We were looking for differences in personality and sensation seeking between high-risk sports athletes and recreational athletes and the correlation between one's purpose to participate in high-risk sports and actual participation.
Method: The data was acquired using three different questionnaires: Sensation Seeking Scale (forms SSS - V and SSS - VI) and the Big Five Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 high-risk sports athletes and 51 recreational athletes. Data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical program.
Results: The results were unexpected because we noticed differences between the two groups in which recreational athletes received higher results, especially in openness. Mostly results from such research show the converse - athletes of high-risk sports are more open. We did not find any difference between the two groups in sensation seeking. We found some correlations between personality traits and factors of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS - V and SSS - VI). Openness and the Thrill and adventure seeking factor correlated in both versions of SSS.
Conclusions: We conclude that high-risk sports athletes differ from recreational athletes, especially in openness. Also, we can confirm that both used versions of SSS are equally effective for analyzing sensation seeking.
Keywords: high-risk sports, personality, sensation seeking, Zuckerman scales
Received: May 18, 2016; Accepted: February 8, 2017; Prepublished online: March 15, 2017; Published: March 31, 2017Show citation
- Barlow, M., Woodman, T., Chapman, C., Milton, M., Stone, D., Dodds, T., & Allen, B. (2015). Who takes risks in high-risk sports? The role of alexithymia. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37, 83-96. Go to original source...
- Barlow, M., Woodman, T., & Hardly, L. (2013). Great expectations: Different high-risk activities satisfy different motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 458-475. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
- Barrett, E., & Martin, P. (2014). Extreme: Why some people thrive at the limits. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
- Breivik, G. (1999). Sensation seeking in sport. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
- Burnik, S., Jug, S., & Kajtna, T. (2008). Sensation seeking in Slovenian female and male mountain climbers. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 38(3), 15-19.
- Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Borgogni, L., Bucik, V., & Boben, D. (1997). Model >>velikih pet<< - pripomočki za merjenje strukture osebnosti [The Big-five model - instruments for measuring personality structure]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Produktivnost d.o.o.
- Castanier, C., Le Scanff, C., & Woodman, T. (2010). Beyond sensation seeking: Affect regulation as a framework for predicting risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 731-738. Go to original source...
- Grosek, A. (2010). Osebnost in potreba po dražljajih pri alpinistih, vrhunskih športnikih in rekreativcih (Diplomsko delo)[Personality and sensation-seeking in mountain climbers, top athletes and recreational athletes (Graduate thesis)]. University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
- Guszkowska, M., & Bołdak, A. (2010). Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports. Biology of Sport, 27, 157-162. Go to original source...
- Jack, S. J., & Ronan, K. R. (1998). Sensation seeking among high- and low- risk sports participants. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 1063-1083. Go to original source...
- Kajtna, T. (2013). Nekateri psihološki vidiki rizičnih športov (Znanstvena monografija) [Some psychological aspects of high-risk sports (Scientific monography)]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana.
- Kerr, J. H. (1991). Arousal-seeking in risk sports participants. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 613-616. Go to original source...
- Lamovec, T. (1988). Priročnik za psihologijo motivacije in emocij [Manual for psychology of motivation and emotions]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana.
- Markič, P. (1990). Osebnostne lastnosti vrhunskih alpinistov in plezalcev [Personality traits of mountain climbers and sports climbers]. In V. Pogačnik (Ed.), Študije Cattellovih testov 16PF (pp. 21-29). Kranj, Slovenia: Self-published.
- McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. Jr. (1997). Conceptions and correlates of openness to experience. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, & S. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 825-847). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
- Monasterio, E., Alamri, Y. A., & Mei-Dan, O. (2014). Personality characteristics in a population of mountain climbers. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 25, 214-219. Go to original source...
- Musek, J. (1993). Osebnost pod drobnogledom [Personality investigated]. Maribor, Slovenia: Obzorja.
- Rinehart, R. (2000). Emerging/arriving sport: Alternatives to formal sports. In J. Coakley & E. Dunning (Eds.), Handbook of sports studies (pp. 504-519). London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.
- Rossi, B., & Cereatti, L. (1993). The sensation seeking in mountain athletes as assessed by Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 417-431.
- Rowland, G. L., Franken, R. E., & Harrison, K. (1986). Sensation seeking and participation in sporting activities. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 212-220. Go to original source...
- Thorpe, H., & Wheaton, B. (2013). Dissecting action sports studies - past, present, and beyond. London, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
- Tohanean, D. I., & Chicomban, M. (2010). Personality and performance sport. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health, 2(Suppl.), 609-613.
- Tok, S. (2011). The big five personality traits and high-risk sport participation. Social Behavior and Personality, 39, 1105-1112. Go to original source...
- Tušak, M., & Bednarik, J. (2001). Osebnost športnika [Personality of an athlete]. In J. Bednarik & M. Tušak (Eds.), Šport, motivacija in osebnost (pp. 180-187). Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana.
- Tušak, M., & Burnik, S. (2001). Osebnost alpinistov [Personality of mountain climbers]. In J. Bednarik & M. Tušak (Eds.), Šport, motivacija in osebnost (pp. 201-218). Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana.
- Tušak, M., Burnik, S., & Robič, B. (2001). Osebnostne lastnosti potapljačev [Personality traits of scuba divers]. In J. Bednarik & M. Tušak (Eds.), Šport, motivacija in osebnost (pp. 188-200). Ljubljana, Slovenia: University of Ljubljana.
- Wagner, A. M., & Houlihan, D. D. (1994). Sensation seeking and trait anxiety in hang-glider pilots and golfers. Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 975-977. Go to original source...
- Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
- Zuckerman, M. (2009). Sensation seeking. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 455-465). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.