Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 2012 (vol. 42), issue 1

Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc., Gymn. 2012 42(1): 43-52 | 10.5507/ag.2012.005

Gender differences in preferences of individual and team sports in Polish adolescents

Filip Křen1, Michal Kudláček1, Wojciech Wąsowicz2, Dorota Groffik2, Karel Frömel1
1 Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University, Olomouc
2 Academy of Physical Education, Katowice

Background: The prevalence of physical activity (PA) depends greatly on the options of executing preferable and favorite PA. Objective information about individual preferences in types of PA can support successful integration of adolescents into regular participation in PA. Defining the role of individual and team sports in regard to girls' and boys' sport preferences is a permanent problem that requires objective and continuous diagnostics.

Objective: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship among girls' and boys' preferences in individual and team sports and further among these preferences and PA participation.

Methods: Online research was conducted in the Katowice region and 518 boys and 559 girls from the age of 15 to 17 years participated. All high schools in the region were called on for participation, but only schools that allowed the research examination participated. Sport preferences survey that participants completed online via INDARES system was used to diagnose preferences in individual and team sports. The results were analyzed using basic statistical procedures, the relationship was determined based on rank correlation coefficients and differences between orders of preferred sports were tested by Mann-Whitney test.

Results: The most preferred individual sport in girls and boys is swimming, and that applies for all age groups. There is a very strong correlation (rs = .841 - .895; p < .001) among girls' and boys' (15 to 17 years old) preferences in individual sports. Volleyball is the most preferred team sport for girls followed by basketball and handball. The most preferred team sport for boys is soccer by distantly followed by volleyball and basketball. The relationship between girls' and boys' team sports is not as strong as for individual sports (rs = .745 - .763; p < .001). In regard to selected sports, boys and girls corresponded in their team sports preferences followed by individual sports preferences. The highest difference in preferences was evident in the group of Rhythmic and Dancing activities, which were ranked third by girls, while boys ranked them last. Both girls and boys who prefer individual sports and girls who prefer team sports participate longer in hourly range of organized PA.

Conclusions: The Polish version of the online system INDARES is a suitable diagnostic tool for the examination of sport preferences sphere in adolescents. Understanding gender differences in sport preferences of adolescents can increase their participation in organized PA.

Keywords: online research, type of physical activity, preference, swimming, INDARES

Prepublished online: March 31, 2012; Published: January 1, 2012

Download citation

References

  1. Aaron, D. J., Storti, K. L., Robertson, R. J., Kriska, A. M., & Laporte, R. E. (2002). Longitudinal study of the number and choice of leisure time physical activities from mid to late adolescence: implications for school curricula and community recreation programs. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(11), 1075-1080. Go to original source...
  2. Alexander, G. M. (2003). An evolutionary perspective of sex typed toy preferences: Pink, blue, and the brain. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 7-15. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Azevedo, M. R., Araujo, C. L., Da Silva, M. C., & Hallal, P. C. (2007). Tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood: A population based study. Revista De Saude Publica, 41(1), 69-75. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Bartoszewicz, R., & Frömel, K. (2006). Motor activity of junior high school students in the period of socioeconomic transformations in Poland and the Czech Republic. Human Movement, 7(1), 14-24.
  5. Booth, M. L., Bauman, A., Owen, N., & Gore, C. J. (1997). Physical activity preferences, preferred sources of assistance, and perceived barriers to increased activity among physically inactive Australians. Preventive Medicine, 26, 131-137. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Bradley, C. B., McMurray, R. G., Harrell, J. S., & Deng, S. (2000). Changes in common activities of 3rd through 10th graders: The CHIC study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 2071-2078. Go to original source...
  7. Burgeson, C. R., Wechsler, H., Brener, N. D., Young, J. C., & Spain, C. G. (2003). Physical education and activity: Results from the school health policies and programs study 2000. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 74(1), 20-36. Go to original source...
  8. Burke, S. M., Carron, A. V., & Eys, M. A. (2005). Physical activity context: Preferences of university students. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 1-13. Go to original source...
  9. Cherney, I. D., & London, K. (2006). Gender linked differences in the toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities of 5 to 13 year old children. Sex Roles, 54, 717-726. Go to original source...
  10. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  11. Cortina, J. M., & Nouri, H. (2000). Effect size for ANOVA design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Go to original source...
  12. Cratty, B. J. (1983). Psychology in contemporary sport: Guidelines for coaches and athletes. Englewood Cliff s, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  13. Eyler, A., Nanney, M. S, Brownson, R. C., Lochman, D., & Haire-Joshu, D. (2006). Corelates of after school activity preference in children agens 5-12: The PARADE study. American Journal of Health Education, 37(2), 69-77. Go to original source...
  14. Faucette, N., Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T., Alcaraz, J., Kolody, B., & Nugent, P. (1995). Comparison of fourth grade studentsʼ out of school physical activity levels and choices by gender: Project spart. Journal of Health Education, 26, 82-90.
  15. Frömel, K., Formánková, S., & Sallis, J. F. (2002). Physi cal activity and sport preference of 10-14 year old children: A 5 year prospective study. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 32(1), 11-16.
  16. Frömel, K., Novosad, J., & Svozil, Z. (1999). Pohybová aktivita a sportovní zájmy mládeže. Olomouc: Univerzita Palackého.
  17. Greenwood, M., & Stillwell, J. (2001). Activity preferences of middle school physical education students. The Physical Educator, 58(1), 26-30.
  18. Hill, G., & Cleven, B. (2005). A comparison of 9th grade male and female physical education activities preference and support for coeducational groupings. The Physical Educator, 62(4), 187-198.
  19. Jones, D., & Ward, P. (1998). Changing the face of secon dary physical education through sport education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 69(5), 40-45. Go to original source...
  20. Kjønniksen, L., Torsheim, T., & Wold, B. (2008). Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: A 10 year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 69-79. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. Kudláček, M. (2010). Sportovní preference a pohybová akti vita studentek a studentů středních škol. Disertační práce, Univerzita Palackého, Fakulta tělesné kultury, Olomouc.
  22. McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Whiteman, S. D. (2003). The family contexts of gender development in childhood and adolescence. Social Development, 12, 125-148. Go to original source...
  23. Pate, R. R., Sallis, J. F., Ward, D. S., Stevens, J., Dowda, M., Welk, G. J., Young, D. R., Jobe, J. B., & Strikmiller, P. K. (2010). Age related changes in types and contexts of physical activity in middle school girls. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(5), 433-439. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Pate, R. R., Dowda, M., OʼNeill, J. R., & Ward, D. (2007). Change in physical activity participation among adolescent girls from 8th to 12th grade. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4, 3-16. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Pryor, J. (1994). Self-esteem and attitudes toward gender roles - contributing factors in adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 46, 48-52. Go to original source...
  26. Sigmund, E., Mitáš, J., Kudláček, M., & Frömel, K. (2007). Stability of physical activity preferences sur vey in physical education students aged 21-24 [Abstract]. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis. Gymnica, 37(2), 100-101.
  27. Sigmundová, D., El Ansari, W., Sigmund, E., & Frömel, K. (2011). Secular trends: A ten year comparison of the amount and type of physical activity and inactivity of random samples of adolescents in the Czech Republic. BMC Public Health, 11, 731. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-731. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Singer, R. N., Murphey, M., & Tennant, L. K. (1993). Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York, NY: Macmillan publishing company.
  29. Tammelin, T., Näyhä, S., Hills, A. P., & Järvelin, M. R. (2003). Adolescent participation in sports and adult physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(1), 22-28. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Virgilio, S. J. (2000). Physical activity motivation: The missing link. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 11(2), 5-7, 11.
  31. Wilson, K. S., & Spink, K. S. (2009). Social influence and physical activity in older females: Does activity preference matter? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 481-488. Go to original source...